Chapter: Manoeuvring in the Information Environment
This chapter aims to offer a framework for States in general and armed forces in particular for generating effects in or through the information environment by answering the question: “How to generate effects in or through the information environment and therefore, how to manoeuvre in this information environment?”
This environment is part of the larger operational environment and consists of three dimensions: the cognitive, virtual and physical. These dimensions in turn host certain layers and these hold targetable entities. States can create effects in this environment by wielding the instruments at their disposal (diplomacy, informational, military and economic) for various purposes (anticipation, prevention, deterrence, protection, intervention, stabilization and normalization). In order to be able to do so, States must organise and equip themselves for manoeuvring in the information environment. To show that indeed States can use this environment, this chapter highlights some cases where an actor uses the information environment to great effect, being: the U.S. Election Information Campaign (2016) and the BlackEnergy Operation (2015) in Ukraine. These cases are indicative of the potential of manoeuvring in the information environment by States and their armed forces.