An incomplete and incomprehensive


390BC -342BC: The START


Cyber is derived from the Greek κυβερ, which means “to steer, to discipline or to govern”.1
One of the most prominent uses of ‘cyber’ in Greek literature is in Plato’s First Alcibiades. There the metaphor of κυβερνήτης (steersman/pilot) is essentially used to summarize “the entirety of Greek philosophy, integrating Mythos, Logos and Nomos”.2 It relates to “thought-aided, purpose-directed, history-illuminated, feedback-dependent, and future-affirming or feedforward-sensitive governance”.3

1 jerry Everard, Virtual States: The Internet and the Boundaries of the Nation-State (New York: Routledge, 2000). p. 15.  2 Barnabas Johnson, “The Cybernetics of Society: The Governance of Self and Civilization,” (accessed October 30, 2013). 3 Johnson, “The Cybernetics of Society: The Governance of Self and Civilization”.


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