Computer Network Defense, CND (1998)+Computer Network Attack, CNA(2000) = Computer Network Operations, CNO(2001)

“Joint Task Force-Computer Network Defense (JTF-CND) reached initial operational capability on Dec. 30, 1998, after exercises and real-world events demonstrated the need for a single coordinating agency with the authority to direct actions necessary for the protection of the Defense Information Infrastructure (DII).


Under the Unified Command Plan 1999 (UCP 99), effective Oct. 1, 1999, the President assigned the CND mission to the U.S. Space Command (USSPACECOM), with the JTF-CND as the subordinate command responsible for executing CND operations.


UCP-99 also designated USSPACECOM as the military lead for Computer Network Attack (CNA) effective Oct. 1, 2000. The USSPACECOM Deputy Director of Operations-Computer Network Attack (DDO-CNA) served as the initial focal point for the CNA mission.


In December 2000, USCINCSPACE directed his staff to assess the feasibility of combining specific aspects of CND and CNA under a single operational commander.


The intent behind the consolidation was to operationalize CND and CNA and fully integrate those capabilities with air, land, sea and space forces across the full spectrum of conflict. Effective April 2, 2001, JTF-CND was re-designated Joint Task Force-Computer Network Operations (JTF-CNO). Effective Oct. 1, 2002, JTF-CNO was assigned to the commander, U.S. Strategic Command.”1

1 U.S. Strategic Command Public Affairs. (2003). Joint Task Force – Computer Network Operations. Retrieved from